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Post University Different Methods of Collecting Data Responses

 

Rebecca G

RE: Unit 4.1 DB: Results and Discussions Sections

Numeric data collected in a research project can be analyzed quantitatively using statistical tools in two different ways. Descriptive analysis refers to statistically describing, aggregating, and presenting the constructs of interest or associations between these constructs. Inferential analysis refers to the statistical testing of hypotheses (Pyrczak & Tcherni-Buzzeo, 2019). According to Pyrczak & Tcherni-Buzzeo, (2019) there are differences between how quantitative and qualitative studies report their findings in the Results & Discussion sections of research articles, this is because of the differences in form and techniques used in the studies.

This writers’ area of interest is how methadone treats opioid addiction. The two research articles chosen are, for qualative, A call for consensus in defining efficacy in clinical trials for opioid addiction: combined results from a systematic review and qualitative study in patients receiving pharmacological assisted therapy for opioid use disorder (Dennis, et al., 2020) , and Slow Release Oral Morphine Versus Methadone for the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder (Klimas, et al., 2019) for qantative.

The qualitative study focused on the effectiveness of methadone in treating clients who had an opioid addiction. Patients were recruited from two opioid addiction treatment centers in Ontario, Canada using purposive sampling. Qualitative methods were used to establish patients’ perspectives of successful addiction treatment. Structured open-ended interviews were conducted to explore each patient’s end-goals of therapy. These interviews identified common themes with regard to addiction treatment goals. Outcomes measures in terms of employed in OUD trials highlights a major lack of consensus in our evidence base when determining appropriate endpoints for establishing treatment effectiveness for OSATs (Dennis, et al., 2020). A substantial number of outcomes as well as variations in the definitions and measurements of the same outcomes were reported across trials. In the results section it was concluded that there were more patients that within the eight broadest domains abstinence and substance use behavior, physical health, psychiatric health and symptoms, personal and social functioning, resource utilization, intervention adherence, intervention acceptance, and global quality of life and addiction severity are 21 more specific outcome domains e.g., illicit opioid use, illicit non-opioid substance use, and across these outcomes there exist 53 separate definitions or measurements (Dennis, et al., 2020). In the Discussion section, the majority of patients agreed that abstinence and reduction in opioid use was a primary goal in their treatment, they also stressed goals for therapy comprising employment, improved relationship stability, reduction in the money spent on drugs, as well as improvements in physical and psychiatric symptoms such as pain, depression, and anxiety (Dennis, et al., 2020).

The article, Slow-release oral morphine versus methadone for the treatment of opioid use disorder, (Klimas, et al., 2019) The objective to this study was to assess the efficacy of slow-release oral morphine (SROM) as a treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). All participants in the included studies met the DSM-IV or V diagnostic criteria for OUD; mean age 33.1 years; of the three studies that reported on gender,17 26 2724.4% were women. The mean duration of trials was 18 weeks (range 11 to 24 weeks). The mean dose of SROM provided to participants was 506.8 mg/day, and the mean dose of methadone was 67.2 mg/day. All four studies were conducted in an outpatient setting, and assessed SROM vs methadone, with only one study by Giacomuzzi et al. explicitly stating psychosocial support. This study also assessed buprenorphine in comparison with SROM and methadone. The present meta-analysis demonstrates the consistent pattern in clinical trials evaluating the impact of SROM. Because most OUD patients do not access agonist therapies, and since poor retention in methadone has been linked to heightened mortality and other health outcomes, SROM may have a promising role in OUD treatment, especially given methadone’s known side-effect profile, the likely attractiveness of SROM to some patients and the apparent reduction in craving when on SROM in comparison to methadone (Klimas, et al., 2019). Klimas, et al. (2019) went into detail in the Discussion section that current evidence suggests that SROM may be generally equal to methadone in the treatment of OUD. The results from two studies indicated that SROM reduces cravings for heroin more than methadone. These findings are relevant to recent high-level recommendations suggesting the need to consider re-purposing existing medications for the treatment of OUD (Klimas, et al., 2019).

This writer has a difficult time understanding some the numbers used in the meta-analysis but fins looking at the graphs helps to break it down. In this writer’s chosen work within human services, she will be working in group therapy specifically related to drug and alcohol addiction. It will be important for this writer to understand the how and why methadone treatment works for cravings and other mental heath issues within addiction.

References

Dennis, B. B., Sanger, N., Bawor, M., Naji, L., Plater, C., Worster, A., . . . Samaan, L. T. (2020). A call for consensus in defining efficacy in clinical trials for opioid addiction: combined results from a systematic review and qualitative study in patients receiving pharmacological assisted therapy for opioid use disorder. Trials, doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3995-y.

Klimas, J., Gorfinkel, L., Giacomuzzi, S. M., Ruckes, C., Socías, M. E., & Wood, N. F. (2019). Slow release oral morphine versus methadone for the treatment of opioid use disorder . BMJ, doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025799.

Pyrczak, F., & Tcherni-Buzzeo, M. (2019). Evaluating Research in Academic Journals. New York, NY: Routledge.

Jasmine J

RE: Unit 4.1 DB: Results and Discussions Sections

The results and discussion section of a research study should provide the reader with a thorough summery of the quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods used. Pan (2015) states the discussion section should also include a stand-alone, a complete document, review that provides conclusion, implications, and suggestions for feature research. In addition,

Leeb et al. (2020) conducted a study of the COVID-19 pandemic impacting the mental health of young individuals resulting in emergency departments visits. According to the discussion and results section of this study, due to school closures and restrictions many children faced mental health issues. Adolescents aged 12–17 years accounted for the highest proportion of mental health–related ED visits in both 2019 and 2020, followed by children aged 5–11 years (Leeb et al., 2020). Between March 29 to April 25, 2020, about 70% of children 14 years of age and younger visited the emergency department however, individuals of all ages decreased significantly for asthma (–10%), otitis media (–65%), and sprain- and strain-related injuries (–39%), yet psychosocial factors increased 69% (Leeb et al, 2020). The COVID-19 put an impact on health worldwide.

The qualitative case study discus implementations that can be utilized to decrease alcohol consumption. Sharma et al. (2020), express how boredom, stress, and lack of socialization has cause individuals to increase or experience bad habits. This study resulted in theory-based or evidence-based alcohol reduction educational programs at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels must be implemented during the pandemic to help in identifying methods for behavior change, adjust the timing of interventions, help in choosing the right mix of strategies, and foster replication (Sherma et al., 2020

References:

Leeb, R. T., Bitsko, R. H., Radhakrishnan, L., Martinez, P., Njai, R., & Holland, K. M. (2020). Mental health and COVID. 14-19 Learning & Skills Bulletin, 353, 39–43. https://doi-org.postu.idm.oclc.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6945a3externalicon

Pan, M. L. (2015). Preparing Literature Reviews: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (5th ed.). Pyrczak Publishing.

Sharma, M., Batra, K., & Nahar, V. K. (2020). Alcohol Consumption in COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Alcohol Education. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 64(2), 8–19.

Sheila H

RE: Unit 4.2 DB: Limitations for Research Designs

Using the articles on Internet Addiction that I chose for DB 4.1, I have some relevant suggestions to address the limitations for each research design. I am beginning to see the pros and cons of both quantitative and qualitative research designs. Quantitative research studies focus on summarizing all the results into statistics, which can sometimes be misleading, for example if a mean is reported and keeps in an outlier number that makes the mean completely off (Pyrczak & Tcherni-Buzzeo, 2019). Qualitative studies can falter because there is so much subjectivity in different areas of reporting findings (Pyrczak & Tcherni-Buzzeo, 2019). In the two articles I reviewed, there were limitations inherent to the research style chosen.

There were a few limitations to the quantitative study on Internet addiction and the use of CBT (Han et al., 2020). Statistical control was applied, but the study was unable to demonstrate the pure effects of CBT without the effects of medication. Second, the lack of randomization in the study design suggests that the results could have been due to selection bias because the character qualities of participants in the study could have affected their decision to choose CBT. Finally, the results merely demonstrated short-term effects of CBT for Internet gaming disorder, but did no follow-up. Some suggestions to address these limitations include that future studies should focus on IGD without medication and co-morbidities as well as performing long-term follow ups (Han et al., 2020). To deal with the lack of randomization, a follow-up study should not use participants self-selecting CBT, but should randomly choose from a population open to any type of therapy.

The qualitative study on Internet addiction was limited due to its use of an intentional sample of single-case studies conducted in a clinical setting (Torres-Rodríguez et al., 2019). Second, the report used self-reports from diaries of the participants, which is liable to biases of memory and of social desirability. Finally, this was a withdrawal study, but the researchers did not end their study when improvements were seen because they felt that wouldn’t be ethical (Torres-Rodríguez et al., 2019). To deal with these limitations, future researchers should use a slightly larger sample from both clinical settings and out-patient mental health centers. Instead of using only self-reported diary entries to understand the symptom and behavior changes, researchers could use researcher and parent observations and logs. In order to have more accountability to study expectations, researchers should not use a withdrawal study design if they do not intend to follow those guidelines.

This skill of identifying weaknesses and providing plausible solutions transfers to my current role in the counseling field by helping me to better understand the research I am reviewing in trying to educate myself on Internet addiction and best treatments. I now know to not trust what I read blindly, but to review the research methods and look for any design or reporting flaws before deciding if the research may be applicable to my situation.

References

Han, J., Seo, Y., Hwang, H., Kim, S. M., & Han, D. H. (2020). Efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy for internet gaming disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 27(2), 203–213. https://doi-org.postu.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/cpp.241…

Pyrczak, F. & Tcherni-Buzzeo, M. (2019). Evaluating research in academic journals: A practical guide to realistic evaluation (7th ed.). Pyrczak Publishing.

Torres-Rodríguez, A., Griffiths, M. D., Carbonell, X., Farriols-Hernando, N., & Torres-Jimenez, E. (2019). Internet Gaming Disorder treatment: A case study evaluation of four different types of adolescent problematic gamers. International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, 17(1), 1–12. https://doi-org.postu.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s11469-…

Jasmine J

RE: Unit 4.2 DB: Limitations for Research Designs

Limitations are important for understanding, analyzing, and identifying errors or bias. Although all limitations do not have to be recognized; it is essential for the ones that could possibly impact the study to be reviewed. Some limitations this writer was able to identify in her first article by Leeb et al. (2020) were sample size, timing, and visual. This writer believes this study may have been stronger if researchers also had participants there were adults and elderly to compare the results between children who had emergency visits. In addition, this study concluded in October 2020, although the world is still experiencing issues in relation to COVID-19. If researchers provided additional ways to test this theory during the period from November 2020 to present could have also made this study stronger. Last, this case study lacked graphs and charts. Although, statistical measures were identified throughout the study, the audience may have grasped a thorough picture if some type of visual was used. For the second article used, this writer also observed a few limitations that could be altered for a clearer study for readers. Sharma et al. (2020) lacked mild organization. This could be reorganized by ensuring the results and discussion section was able to identify the issues the researchers found and how further research could be up for debate, if needed. Also, researchers did not specify the hypothesis. This writer understood the concept of the study which was the consumption of alcohol during the pandemic; however, it was not clear to what researchers were willing to change. If the researchers add a thorough hypothesis, it will help the audience engage and have better understanding.

In this writer’s opinion, limitations are crucial to a study, and it is important to be mindful of them and how they can affect your wok. This writer feels it is beneficial to be able to identify limitations to ensure she does not mistakenly place them into her own work. This writer would also like to continue increasing her knowledge of limitations.

References:

Leeb, R. T., Bitsko, R. H., Radhakrishnan, L., Martinez, P., Njai, R., & Holland, K. M. (2020). Mental health and COVID. 14-19 Learning & Skills Bulletin, 353, 39–43. https://doi-org.postu.idm.oclc.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6945a3externalicon

Sharma, M., Batra, K., & Nahar, V. K. (2020). Alcohol Consumption in COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Alcohol Education. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 64(2), 8–19.

Jasmine J

RE: Unit 4.3 DB: Inter-rater Reliability

Inter-rater reliability, also referred to as inter-observer agreement, helps establish the degree to which behaviors are being measured consistently (Sheperis et al., 2017). Furthermore, Tinsley and Weiss (1975) states inter-rater reliability represent the degree to which the ratings of different judges are proportional when ex- pressed as deviations from their means. In practice, this means that the relationship of one rated individual to other rated individuals is the same although the absolute numbers used to express this relationship may differ from judge to judge (Tinsley & Weiss, 1975).

If this writer were to design a hypothetical research design, she would analyze how psychotropic medications affect individuals diagnosed with a mental illness. In this writer’s field, she has observed clients being prescribed psychotropic medications to assist with their psychiatric behaviors and/or symptoms; however, some clients report they feel better when they do not take the medicine. This writer understands it is important for clients to stay in compliance with taking their psychotropic medication as prescribed but this writer also knows clients will not always adhere by the rules for several reasons. Some of the questions this writer would as clients are as follows:

  1. How do you feel when taking your prescribed psychotropic medications?
  2. Do you experience new symptoms or behaviors when taking your prescribed psychotropic medications? Or when you do not take your psychotropic medications? For example, mood swings, depression, anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, drowsy, etc.

By asking using a questionnaire method, this writer will facilitate that inter-rater reliability is accurate by ensuring all answers are simple for the clients participating, such as yes, no, or not applicable (not sure) and results are precise. Individuals who have a mental illness usually have limited cognitive functioning therefore it is mindful to understand how to voice the questions and providing answers they can understand. According to Sheperis et al. (2017), occurrence/nonoccurrence agreement is the most rigorous and preferred method for calculating inter-rater reliability. In addition, inter-rater reliability usually is reported in terms of correlational or analysis of variance indexes (Tinsley & Weiss, 1975).
References:

Sheperis, C.J., Young, J.S., & Daniels, M. H. (2017). Counseling Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods (2nd. Ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

Tinsley, H. E., & Weiss, D. J. (1975). Interrater reliability and agreement of subjective judgments. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22(4), 358.

Rebecca G

RE: Unit 4.3 DB: Inter-rater Reliability

Inter-rater reliability refers to the degree to which different raters give consistent estimates of the same behavior. Inter-rater reliability can be used for interviews, it can also be called inter-observer reliability when referring to observational research. Researchers observe the same behavior independently to avoided bias and compare their data. If the data is similar, then it is reliable (Hallgren, 2012). Many research designs require the assessment of inter-rater reliability (IRR) to demonstrate consistency among observational ratings provided by multiple coders. However, many studies use incorrect statistical procedures, fail to fully report the information necessary to interpret their results, or do not address how IRR affects the power of their subsequent analyses for hypothesis testing (Hallgren, 2012).

If this writer were to make a hypothetical qualitative research design, she would examine how cocaine affects the dopamine levels in the brain. This writer would use a questionnaire with a set of questions that will be distributed to participants. For example, this writer will ask questions such as

  1. How often do you use cocaine in order to feel high? They would have a range of three answers

a.) less then 3x a day

b.) more then 3x a day

c.) I’m not sure.

2.) Do you notice feeling of alertness, power, and energy?

a.) yes

b.) no

3.) Do you feel more confident and excited?

a.) yes

b.) no

4.) Have you ever experienced anxiety, paranoia, and agitation?

a.) yes

b.) no

In order for researchers to know the scores actually represent the characteristic, especially when it is a construct like intelligence, self-esteem, depression, or working memory capacity they conduct research using the measure to confirm that the scores make sense based on their understanding of the construct being measured. (Hallgren, 2012) We cannot simply assume that their measures work. Instead, we collect data to demonstrate that they work. If the research does not demonstrate that a measure works, they stop using it.

References

Hallgren, K. A. (2012). Computing Inter-Rater Reliability for Observational Data: An Overview and Tutorial. Tutorials in quantitative methods for psychology, 23–34.

Pyrczak, F., & Tcherni-Buzzeo, M. (2019). Evaluating Research in Academic Journals. New York, NY: Routledge.

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