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FAU Cervical Cancer and Cervical Cancer Responses


Part 1

Your response to your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts.

Pelvic Examination Positions

Pelvic checkups are performed to examine pain, bruising, and vaginal secretions and test for cervical cancer and sexually transmitted diseases (Bibbins-Domingo et al., 2017). Lithotomy has historically been the most commonly used patient position during pelvic examination because it allows for clear accessibility of the vulva and easy examiner access to the genitals. Other pelvic exam positions are knee-chest, M, lateral decubitus (Sims), V, and diamond. These modifications can help patients who have constrained hip abduction or other muscular impairments. The sim position allows for a better view of the cervix than the dorsal lithotomy position. A patient is positioned on one side with hips and knees flexed.

UTI in Women

Women are more vulnerable to UTI (urinary tract infections) than men because of their anatomy. They have a shorter urethra; bacteria travel less distance to reach the bladder or other parts of the urinary tract. Furthermore, because the urethra of a woman is near to the anus, bacteria from the anus can enter the urethra more easily. This describes why they are more likely than their counterparts to develop UTI.

How to Decrease the Risk of UTI

UTI can be decreased by encouraging people to urinate after sexual activity and stay well hydrated. Besides, I would teach them to take showers instead of baths. I would also encourage individuals to drink plenty of liquids, especially water and cranberry juice, and wipe from front to back using their towels. Besides all, I would encourage them to practice good personal hygiene.

Pros and Cons of Circumcision

Circumcision is the clinical excision of the soft tissue that covers the head of the penis.


It lowers the STIs and urinary tract infections risk. It decreases the risk of cervical cancer in female sex partners and shields against penile cancer. In addition, it protects against balanitis, balanoposthitis, phimosis, and paraphimosis.


It increases the risk of bleeding and infection, irritates the glans, threatens the penis, and increases the likelihood of mastitis.

Signs on a Female Examination

The Goodell sign, which appears around the sixth week of pregnancy, is characterized by softening of the cervix and a velvety appearance. The Chadwick Sign occurs around the sixth to eighth gestation due to increased vascularity in the pregnant woman, and the cervix should turn a bluish or violet color. The Hegar sign is caused by a hormonal effect that causes the lower uterus to soften. The Chadwick sign occurs early in pregnancy and involves increased blood flow to the cervix and vagina around the fourth week, resulting in purplish-red tissue.

Characteristics of the following types of Hernias

Indirect inguinal is the most usual form of groin hernia. It occurs when abdominal content like fat or bowel pushes along the inguinal canal (Healthline, 2021). It has a tunnel-like structure in both men and females. It does not cause bowel strangulation since it extension.

Direct inguinal is caused by the weakening of the abdominal muscle wall. It causes bowel strangulation. Contrarily, a femoral hernia occurs when tissue pushes through a weak point in the groin or inner thigh (Healthline, 2021). It is more prevalent in women than men. It may affect the blood vessels and block blood flow.


Bibbins-Domingo, K., Grossman, D. C., Curry, S. J., Barry, M. J., Davidson, K. W., Doubeni, C. A., … & US Preventive Services Task Force. (2017). screening for gynecologic conditions with pelvic examination: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama, 317(9), 947-953.

Healthline. (2021). Direct vs. Indirect Hernia: What’s the Difference? Retrieved from: (Links to an external site.).

Below I have 2 posts please provide a response for both. 150 words each with reference.

Part 2

Your response to your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts.


Female Examination Methods

Lithotomy has been the most common position used during female examination. The position is common because it provides a perfect visibility of the vulva and the examiner can have a good procedure due to the good view. However, patients have described this method as being cold, degrading, and impersonal (Young et al., 2021). This has led to formulation of other friendly method the most common being the V position. V position involves abducted hips and supine where the knees become extended. Another common method is the diamond position where the knees are flexed, the hips and supine abducted, and the soles of the feet touch each other.

UTI in Women

Women and men experience urinal transmitted infections at different proportions. Studies show that women experience the UTIs more frequently than men. Two reasons have been given for this, the first being the female physiology that exposes them more than men. For instance, women have to sit on the toilet bowl when urinating as opposed to men who will just stand. This ends up exposing women more to infections. Secondly, women have a shorter urethra than men. The shorter urethra makes it easy for bacteria or disease-causing micro-organisms to travel through to the bladder and cause the UTI.

UTI Education

There are several points of education that can help women in overcoming the risks associated with UTIs. The first is a general maintenance of hygiene. The hygiene entails both the personal body hygiene like wearing clean and dry underwear, and ensuring that the toilets and toilet bowls are always clean. Secondly, women can be taught about basic sexual protection like the use of condoms, both male and female condoms that can prevent them from getting infections through sexual intercourse. The education should insist to the women about the comparative danger of contracting STIs and STDs that they have compared to men.

Pros and Cons of Newborn Circumcision

Newborn circumcision entails removing of the foreskin from young boys’ genitalia. This practice is done mainly due to hygiene reasons for the young boys although some people do it just so that the boys can look like their fathers. The primary advantage of doing the newborn circumcision is to reduce the possibility of them contracting urinary transmitted illnesses and STDs later on in life as they grow up (Rossi et al., 2021). The practice, however, has been associated with instances of the young boys bleeding thus forming blood clot disorders that may end up being detrimental, even though the cases have been very insignificant.

Female Pregnancy Examination

Several models have been formulated in line with the female examinations and they entail Goodell sign, Chadwick sign, McDonald sign, and Hegar sign. Goodell sign arises out of increased vascularization leading to softening of the cervix. Hegar sign is characterized by softening in the consistency of the uterus and is a non-sensitive indication of pregnancy in women. McDonald sign is used to indicate the growth and development of the fetus based on the size of the uterus while Chadwick sign mainly occur during the fourth week of pregnancy where the tissues become purplish-red due to the increased blood flow to the cervix.

Femoral, Indirect Inguinal, and Direct Inguinal Hernia

Hernia is the abnormal bulging or swelling of an organ or a tissue through an abnormal opening and it usually take place when an organ or tissue protrudes through the wall of the tissue that holds it. Indirect inguinal hernias are the most common type and occurs when the abdominal content pushes through the inguinal canal. Direct inguinal, on the other hand is caused by stressors that are related to age and weakened muscles. The femoral hernia is the most uncommon type and may appear in some occasions as a painful lump on the groin and thigh.


Rossi, S., Buonocore, G., & Bellieni, C. V. (2021). Management of pain in newborn circumcision: a systematic review. European Journal of Pediatrics, 180(1), 13-20.

Young, K., Mou, T., Geynisman-Tan, J., Tavathia, M., Collins, S., Mueller, M., … & Kenton, K. (2021). Truth or Myth: Intra-abdominal Pressure Increases in the Lithotomy Position. Journal of minimally invasive gynecology, 28(1), 26-29.


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